Colloquium 2019



May 20-21, 2019 Brussels, Belgium

Institute for the Equality of Women and Men

1, rue Ernest Blérot, B-1070 Bruxelles

Below, the PROGRAMME:

Full programme.doc


09:00-09:25    Keynote lecture 1 | Supporting the health sector to improve FGM prevention and care: WHO’s approach

Christina Pallitto, WHO Geneva

09:25-11:50    Session 1: Social determinants

Moderators | Dina Bader, Fatou Kébé

Objectives: Understand that the practice of FGM/C is embedded in the cultural and social network of a society. / Use the social experience of women to offer better interventions for FGM/C care. / Identify the turning points in women’s life for abandoning the practice.

09:25-09:50    Invited speaker 1

Trends and shifts in the practice of FGMC: facilitators/barriers to abandonment in Kenya

Samuel Thuo Kimani, Kenya


09:50-10:05    Evidence that Female Genital Cutting is a Social Coordination Norm:  Predictions and Empirical Results

Katherine Wander and Bettina Shell-Duncan, USA


10:05-10:20    The social consequences of FGM/C on psycho-social well-being: a qualitative data   synthesis

Sarah O’Neill, Belgium


10:20-10:35    Female genital cutting in a transnational setting: perceptions and practices among Somali and Sudanese migrants in Norway

Ragnhild Elise B. Johansen, Norway


10:35-10:50    Tracing Change in Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C): Shifting Norms and Practices among Communities in Narok and Kisii Counties

Dennis Matanda, Kenya


10:50-11:05    Coffee break

11:05-11:20    Identifying turning points in the process of changing attitudes towards the practice of Female Genital Mutilation among migrant women in Belgium

Afi Agboli, Togo, Belgium


11:20-11:35    The continuing and emerging determinants for the prevalence of female genital mutilation in Kajiado County, Kenya

Everlyne Komba, Kenya


11:35-11:50    Opinion Leaders and Social Network Mapping Among obstetricians to influence opinions on FGM abandonment and social norm change

Wisal Ahmed, Sudan


11:50-13:00    Session 2: How receiving countries tackle the issues related to prevention and protection in migrants from practicing communities

Moderators | Fabienne Richard, Birgitta Essen

Objectives: Understand that there are unaccountable variations in policies in different countries, ranging from mandatory registration to centering on decreased stigma.

11:50-12:15    Invited speaker 2
The need for epistemological humility
Prevention and care of FGC among migrants in Sweden
Anna Wahlberg, Sweden

12:15-12:30    FGC-related Health Burden and Experiences of Trust and Disrespect among Somali women in the US

Nicole Warren, USA


12:30-12:45    Meaning Well While Doing Harm: Societal measures to check for FGM in Sweden

Sara Johnsdotter, Sweden


12:45-13:00    The effects and experience of the FGM Mandatory Reporting Duty and the Risk Indication System in the UK

Amy Abdelshahid, UK


13:00-14:00    Lunch break

13:00-14:00    Poster session 1

Following of session 2

14:00-14:15    Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting as the basis for an asylum claim in the US: An Analysis of recent cases

Ranit Mishori and Deborah Ottenheimer, USA


14:15-14:30    “Women Lie”: A hostile environment for FGM in an Immigration Context

Charlotte Proudman, UK


14:30-14:45    Factfulness: the stress-reducing habit of only carrying opinions for which you have strong supporting facts

Luce Mosselmans, Sweden


14:45-15:40    Session 3: Care and prevention

Moderators | Jacinta Muteshi, Elise Dubuc

Objectives: Improve knowledge regarding the clinical presentations of FGM/C in the children and adolescent population / Providing appropriate information to professionals and pupils in schools and youth movements

14:45-15:10    Invited speaker 3

A UK perspective on child and adolescent care and prevention

Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) surveillance in children and young people (<16 years) in the United Kingdom (UK) and Republic of Ireland (ROI).

Deborah Hodes, UK


15:10-15:25    Evidence to prevent female genital mutilation in High Income Countries: a systematic review and content analysis

Angela Dawson, Australia


15:25-15:40    What do we need to know about Health Care Provider Knowledge Attitudes and Practices toward Caring for Women and Girls Affected by Female Genital Mutilation/ Cutting? 

Marea Christina, USA


15:40- 15:55   Tea & Coffee Break

Presentation linked to the subjects of the workshops:

15:55-16:10    Atlas for children with FGM/C
Noémie Guedj and Jasmine Abdulcadir, Switzerland


16:10-16:25       L’accès aux soins et services en matière de MGF/Excision dans les pays d’accueil : perspective des femmes concernées au Québec [Access to care and specialized FGM/C services in host countries: affected women perspectives in Quebec]

Fatoumata Baldé, Canada


16:25-16:40    Piloting female genital mutilation surveillance in Sudan: achievements and lessons

Wisal Ahmed, Sudan


16:40-16:55    Prevalence of female genital mutilation/cutting in various datasets in Finland

Reija Klemetti, Finland


The participants who wish to will then break up into three groups for participation in small workshops

17:00-18:30    Workshop 1: Atlas of FGM/C in children

Jasmine Abdulcadir, Elise Dubuc, and Deborah Hodes

Objectives: At present there are iconography and learning tools/videos available on FGMC in adults. Learning tools for children’s care are lacking.  Within the G3 collaboration, a project for developing an atlas or learning tool on FGMC in children has started.  This workshop aims at improving collaboration and participation for realizing such tool.

17:00-18:30    Workshop 2: Decreasing stigma

Sophie Alexander, Sarah O’Neill, and Angela Dawson

Objectives: Words and attitudes are important: calling FGMC barbaric or even including it with other forms of VAWG might be counterproductive.  What is the best way to balance the three aims of “no complacency, no blame, no shame”?

17:00-18:30    Workshop 3: FGM Prevalence studies direct observation versus self-reporting / direct and indirect in source and migration countries

Jacinta Muteshi, Jurgita Pečiūrienė, and Birgitta Essén

Objectives: Published data indicate that in source and in receiving countries both women and clinicians may incorrectly report women’s circumcision status. Further, self-reporting or reporting on daughter status may present certain constraints. This methodological problem impacts on accurate measurement of decline of the practice.  What is the best way to measure?  What are the ethics and feasibility of direct observation measures? What can we do for population level estimates? What about type IV? 

19:00-20:30 Networking Cocktail hosted by the End FGM European Network

                         Park Inn Radisson Hotel – Place Marcel Broodthaers 3, Bruxelles    


08:00-08:30    Registration & Coffee

08:30-09:00    Keynote lecture 2: Position statements, EIGE, END FGM network

08:30-08:45    Estimating the Number of Girls at Risk of Female Genital Mutilation in the EU: a focus on Belgium.
Jurgita Pečiūrienė, EIGE


08:45-09:00    Research priorities around FGM in Europe – results of a survey among experts, Chiara Cosentino, End FGM European Network


09:00-13:05    Session 4: Clinical demands and outcomes in adult women with FGMC: obstetrical, gynaecological, urologic, psychiatric, sexual and more in source and receiving countries

Moderators | Jasmine Abdulcadir, Mamadou Balde

Objectives: Present results in different contexts, report on motivation, for surgery, improve knowledge regarding the local regulations about deinfibulation, clitoral reconstruction, reinfibulation

09:00-09:20    Invited speaker 4

Obstetrical outcome among women with FGC

Why do Somali women have an increased risk for perinatal and maternal mortality? Audits studies from high-and low resource settings in Sweden and Somalia

Birgitta Essen, Sweden

09:20-09:40    Invited speaker 5

Clitoral reconstruction in Burkina Faso

La formation des médecins à la technique chirurgicale de re-exposition du clitoris après MGF: expérience du Burkina Faso [Doctors training to the surgical technics of re-exposure of the clitoris after FGM: experience of Burkina Faso].

Charlemagne Ouedraogo, Burkina Faso

09:40-09:55    “I have changed my mind, I don’t want the operation anymore”: therapeutic pathways of women who request reconstructive surgeries after FGM/C in Belgium.

Sarah O’Neill, Belgium

09:55-10:10    Measurement of the Sexual Health and Wellbeing of Women who have Undergone Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Scoping Review

Tammary Esho, Kenya

10:10-10:25    Présentation de 5 outils pédagogiques facilement accessibles et compréhensibles, développés à CeMAViE, dans le cadre de la prise en charge sexologique des femmes ayant subi les MGF.[Presentation of 5 educational tools developped at CeMAViE for the sexological management of women living with FGM]

Cendrine Vanderhoeven, Belgium


10:25-10:40    A Meta-Analysis of the Sexual Effects of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting Using the Female Sexual Function Index

Gretchen Heinrichs, USA

10:40-10:55    Female Genital Cutting and the Lived Experiences of Somali-Canadian Women

Danielle Jacobson, Canada

10:55-11:10    Coffee break

Following session 4

11:10-11:25    Demographics of Philadelphian Women with FGM/C and Health Care Usage

Jasjit Beausang, USA


11:25-11:55    The Maternity experiences and needs of women with female genital mutilation in Australia

Turkmani Sabera, Australia


11:55-12:05    Stakeholders roles and views of care of women with FGM experiencing the postpartum period.

Seymour Rebecca, UK

12:05-12:20    A systematic review and meta-analysis of the reproductive health consequences of female genital mutilation: a comparison between countries in a global context.

Fatoumata Sylla, France

12:20-12:35    Assessing the Nigerian Health System’s Response to Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C)

Otibho Obianwu, Nigeria


12:35-12:50    Sexual scripts and perceptions of healthcare needs related to FGM/C among Sudanese and Somali in Norway

Ziyada Mai Mahgoub, Norway

12:50-13:05    Perspectives of Quebec-based Health Care Professionals in regards with FGM/C: Highlights and Gaps

Bilkis Vissandjée and Elise Dubuc, Canada

13:05-14:00    Lunch break

13:05-14:00    Poster session 2

14:00-16:00    Session 5: Including conceptual and ethical controversies around FGM, Alternative forms/ FGMC type 4/ Medicalisation

Moderators | Samuel Kimani, Sophie Alexander

Objectives: Serve as a platform for colleagues wishing to present conceptual theoretical issues such as: is FGM a feminist issue or not, is FGMC to be included in the violence topic, male circumcision, intersex and more?

14:00-14:20    Invited speaker 6

Genital Autonomy

Why a U.S. law banning ‘FGM’ was ruled unconstitutional–and what can be done to protect children going forward 

Brian Earp, USA

14:20-14:40    Invited speaker 7

Type 4 in Senegal

Regard croisé sur l’enlèvement des « sothieuntes » : perceptions des professionnels de la santé, des femmes victimes, des hommes et des pratiqueuses (coupeuses)

Fatou Kebe, Sénégal

14:40-14:55    Normative vision of the women’s external genitalia is an obstacle for prevention

Elise Dubuc, Canada


14:55-15:10    Responses to the constitutional arguments about the need to protect and promote FGM as a community’s right to cultural expression for consenting adults: the Kenyan example

Joachim Osur, Kenya


15:10-15:25    A situational Analysis of Female Genital Mutilation in Sri Lanka

Angela Dawson, Australia


15:25-15:40    Tea & Coffee break

Following session 5

15:40-15:55    La non-pratique des mutilations génitales féminines à Conakry: Études de cas sur les expériences et perspectives de familles dans le contexte de forte prévalence de la Guinée [The non-practice of FGM in Conakry: Case studies on the profiles & experiences of families in the context of high prevalence of Guinea]

Marie-Hélène Doucet, Canada

15:55-16:10    Factors that influence the decision-making processes of healthcare providers in performing FGM on girls and women (medicalization of FGM)
Mamadou Baldé, Guinea Conakry

16:10-16:25    Does medicalization counteract the abandonment of FGC?  The association between medicalization and prevalence trends of FGC in Egypt.

Nina Van Eekert, Belgium


The participants who wish to will then break up into two groups for participation in small workshops

16:30-18:00    Workshop 4: Synergies between the NGO and Academic sectors 

Stéphanie Florquin, Fabienne Richard and Everlyne Komba

Objectives: GAMS is the main NGO in Belgium working with prevention of FGM, support and care of affected women since 1996. In addition to – and feeding off – its first-line activities and training of professionals, GAMS Be also conducts quantitative and qualitative research on FGM including prevalence studies and (action-) research on the health needs and attitudes of affected communities.

In this workshop we will discuss synergies between the NGO sector and the Academic sector regarding research and policy on FGM, with a focus on issues such as: NGO-Researcher collaborations to reinforce knowledge about affected communities’ needs; Reinforcing access of professionals to research data to improve services and policy on FGM (example of the Community of Practice on FGM); Opportunities and difficulties of research conducted by NGOs; How researchers and NGOs can co-develop better evaluation frameworks for community interventions.

16:30-18:00    Workshop 5: Alternative Rites

Omar Abdulcadir, Samuel Thuo Kimani, and Brian Earp

Objectives: One of the possible routes in cultural groups which are strongly attached to the tradition of cutting is to establish a “replacement ritual”.  Do we have evidence that it works? How far can this go?  Does it include “touching” the genitalia?  Where religious leaders are favourable to FGMC should they be involved in the process?
Is a “prick” an acceptable alternative, because it is perceived by some as relatively harmless, or could it still be morally wrong as form of disrespect to the child’s bodily integrity even if it is medically less harsh?

16:30-18:00   Workshop 6: Troisième génération dans les pays d’accueil et les pays d’origine [Third generation in source and receiving countries]

Armelle Andro, Marie-Hélène Doucet, and Fatoumata Sylla

Objectives: Que l’abandon des MGF/E soit délibéré ou imposé par la loi, élever des filles non excisées a un impact sur les expériences des mères. Que savons-nous de la future generation? [Whether the eschewing of FGMC was deliberate or legally imposed, for mothers with FGMC, the raising of ‘uncut’ daughters has consequences in terms of women’s mothering experiences.  What do we know about the next generation?]

This workshop will be held in French


18:00-18:15    Closing remarks & plans for the future G3 and Belgian organizing committees


Day 3                                                                                    22 May 2019                                                                                  Satellite meetings

Satellite 1: UNIL ULB workshop

Topic: Rethinking Female Genital Operations: new perspectives on the zero tolerance debate

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a generic term that refers to a set of practices aimed at changing the appearance of female genitalia to meet social norms linked to sexuality, gender and aesthetics. According to international guidelines all forms of FGM are condemned – whether it is invasive (e.g. infibulation) or symbolic (e.g. pricking), medicalized or not, performed after consent or without, practiced on a child or an adult woman – the tolerance is « zero ». Yet, zero tolerance only concerns practices associated with African and South Asian countries but does not apply to female genital surgeries, which are increasingly desired and practiced on adult women and teenage girls under age. Given this double standard, several questions arise from the point of view of both critical reflection and public action: how can you ask migrant communities not to adopt pricking (symbolic form) as an alternative to more invasive forms of FGM, when European clinics offer nymphoplasty (i.e. complete or partial excision of labia minora) for aesthetic reasons? How can you put forward the argument regarding the respect for the physical integrity of children, when « cosmetic surgeries » are practiced on European minors? Based on a collaboration between UNIL and ULB, the aim of the symposium is to initiate interdisciplinary conversations about these controversies by bringing together health professionals, researchers and practitioners working on this subject in different North-South contexts.

The workshop will be held in English

09.00-09:30    Welcome with coffee

09:30-10:00    Introduction

Cynthia Kraus (UNIL)
Asuncion Fresnoza-Flot (ULB-LAMC)

10:00-11:00    Invited speakers

10:00-10:15    Janice Boddy, social anthropologist, University of Toronto

10:15-10:30    Brian Earp, philosopher, Yale University

10:30-10:45    Omar Abdulcadir, gynaecologist/obstetrician, University of Florence

10:45-11:00    Stephanie Florquin, network co-ordinator, GAMS Belgium

11:00-13:00    Open debate

13:00-14:00    Lunch & networking

Organizing Committee:

Dina Bader | UNIL; Cynthia Kraus | UNIL; Sarah O’Neill | ULB; Sophie Alexander | ULB

Satellite 2: CARE AND SHARE annual meeting

Share and care is an existing group of CLINICIANS who work in units who care for women with a FGM/C. They offer clitoral reconstruction in a holistic context. They share their experience annually. The previous meeting was in Paris.

The workshop will be held in French (with live translating into English)

09.30-10:00    Welcome with coffee

10:00-10:15    Introduction
Martin Caillet and Ghada Hatem

10:15-11:00    Child examination: how to examine a child in optimal conditions (attitudes, language, …)

Céline Deguette, forensic doctor (Paris): Experience in consultation with children followed by an open discussion

11:00-11.45    Reconstructive Surgery:  material, method, post-operative treatments, interest of the pre-operative multidisciplinary staff.
Charlemagne Ouedraogo, OB/GYN (Burkina Faso): Presentation of his protocol and post-operative care, followed by an open discussion

11:45-12:30    Feedback from the Working Group on the questionnaire Sexo
Arnaud Sevenne, sexologist (Paris): Presentation of the results of the pre-test.

12.30-13.00    Next steps, Care and Share Network future events

13:00-14:00    Lunch & networking

14h30-15h30  Visit of « 320, rue Haute » our « Women’s House » for those who wish.

Care and Share Organizing Committee:

Martin Caillet | CeMAViE, ULB ; Ghada Hatem | Maison des Femmes, Paris ;
Fabienne Richard | CeMAViE, ESP ULB, GAMS Belgique


Poster Session                                                   20 May and 21 May 2019



Anti-violence women shelters and public health system in Italy: reality and possibilities to fight FGM and offer protection and prevention to women and girls.

Valanetina Pescetti, Italy


Attitudes of health care providers regarding FGM and its medicalization in Guinea

Mamadou Baldé, Guinea Conakry

Development and validation knowledge, attitudes, and confidence (KAC) scale for health care providers caring for women and girls affected by FGM/C US context

Christina Marea, USA

Effect of an FGC educational intervention on provider competencies

Nicole Warren, USA

Female Genital Mutilation and Women’s Healthcare Experiences with the General Practitioner in the Netherlands: a Qualitative Study

Emily Allwood, Netherlands


FGM/C in Austria – Regulations, Politics, and Interventions

Jirovsky Elena, Austria

Lessons learned during 7 years of sensibilization campaigns in rural communities in Kankan, Guinea

Kaba Bintou Mady, Guinea Conakry


Mapping the Research Priorities for FGM/C in the US. 

Mishori Ranit, USA


Mesure de la satisfaction et du bien-être des professionnel.le.s en charge d’un parcours de soins destiné aux femmes victimes de mutilations génitales féminines et de violences sexuelles en situation de précarité.

Maëlle Prioux, France

Opportunities for multi-sector Approach in a Devolved Governance Context: Eradication of Harmful Traditional Practices in Kenya

Everlyne Komba, Kenya

Prise en charge multidisciplinaire de patientes ayant subi des mutilations sexuelles féminines en service de maladies infectieuses : un exemple de parcours en santé sexuelle

Laura Bouetard, France

Complications des MGF en milieu rural malien

Moustapha Touré, Mali

Socio-economic impact for the health system of female genital mutilation in Burkina Faso

Joel Zina Mbiton, Burkina Faso


Victimization, Genital Mutilation, and Health among Somali Refugee Women in the U.S.A

Kate Fox, USA

Towards more collaborative approaches to Female Genital Mutilation safeguarding in the UK: Accommodating the perspectives of Somali families

Karlsen Shaffron, UK


G3 fixed Organizing Committee:

  • Jasmine Abdulcadir | University of Geneva;
  • Sophie Alexander | Université Libre de Bruxelles;
  • Elise Dubuc | University of Montreal;
  • Dina Bader | University of Lausanne.


Belgium G3 Organizing Committee:

  • Nicolas Belkacemi | Institut pour l’Egalité entre les Femme et les Hommes (IEFH);
  • Martin Caillet | CeMAViE, ULB;
  • Els Leye | International Centre for Reproductive Health (ICRH) UGent;
  • Sarah O’Neill | ULB-ESP ; ULB-LAMC
  • Fabienne Richard | ULB-ESP, CEMAViE and GAMS-Belgique;
  • Nina van Eekert | Centre of Population, Family & Health (UAntwerpen) | International Centre for Reproductive Health (UGhent).
  • An Vercoutere | Erasme, ULB.

The meeting will be held in English & French (with live translation).